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 【翻译】胜利的代价:第11轻坦克装甲旅在哈尔哈河的反攻

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本帖被 germanyia 从 二战历史 移动到本区(2011-06-04)
Khalkhyn Gol: Cost of Victory. The counterattack of 11th Light Tank Brigade.
【翻译】胜利的代价:第11轻坦克装甲旅在哈尔哈河(诺门坎)的反攻

原帖地址:http://www.battlefield.ru/en/combat-accounts/106-battles/392-khalkhin-ghol-11oltbr.html

Quote:

The skirmishes in the area of Khalkhin-Gol (Nomongan) were a part of an armed conflict between USSR and Japan in the vicinity of Mongolia’s Khalkhin-Gol River not far away from Manchurian (Manchukuo) border, which lasted from spring to fall of 1939. The final battle occurred at the end of August and resulted in a complete destruction of Japan’s Sixth Army. On September 15 USSR and Japan signed an armistice.



在哈尔哈河(诺门坎)发生的小型战斗属于苏联和日本在蒙古境内的的哈尔哈河(诺门坎)武装冲突的一部分,这里距离日本控制下的满洲国的边境也不远,这次冲突从1939年的春季一直打到秋季。冲突的最后一次战役发生于8月末,这次战役中日本第六军遭到了毁灭性的打击。在9月15日,日本和苏联签订了停战协定。






Quote:
Let’s look at one of the key moments of the battle, possibly the decisive moment, which was the Japanese attack, attempting to completely surround and rout the combined Soviet-Mongolian force. In the beginning of July Japanese Command has gathered a large force in the area of Khalkhin-Gol River. It consisted of all 3 regiments from the 23rd Infantry Division, Manchurian army’s Cavalry Division, 2 tank regiments and one artillery regiment. According to the Japanese plan there were to be two attacks. The first, led by major-general Kobayashi, included the crossing the Khalkhin-Gol River and a move in the direction of the ferries toward the rear of Soviet forces, stationed on the east bank of the river. The second attack, by which the Japanese wanted to paralyze the Soviet forces, was led by Yasuoka Detachment. It was to directly strike Soviet positions at the bridgehead.

Yasouka Detachment initiated the attack. Its plan was to create a diversion and to set up a trap. The Japanese intended to create an impression of swift and powerful strike in order to force the G. Zhukov’s forces to call for reinforcements from the other side of the river. Meanwhile Kobayashi’s group was supposed to strike the ferries and the West side of the river and prevent Soviet forces from crossing the river. Obviously the Japanese were aware of the fact that any force, trying to cross the river would be extremely vulnerable. The Japanese hoped to either force the Soviets to abandon their bridgehead or to completely rout Zhukov’s forces.


下面让我们来看一下这次冲突中的一个关键时刻,也许这也是最具决定性的时刻,也就是日本人开始进攻,打算包围并歼灭苏联蒙古联军的时候。在六月初,日本指挥官就在哈尔哈河集中了大量的部队,包括23师团的3个联队,1伪满骑兵师,2个坦克联队和一个炮兵联队。根据日本人的进攻计划,它们将在两个方向上发动攻击,一个是由小林少将指挥,渡过哈尔哈河并从渡口方向插入苏军后方,守住河的东岸。另一个攻击,由安冈战车支队执行,它们将直接进攻苏军的桥头堡,以图将苏军彻底击溃。

安冈支队的攻击计划意图通过采取声东击西的方法来设下圈套。日本人打算通过对朱可夫将军的部队进行一次快速和有力的攻击,来使其请求河的另一边苏军的支援,此时小林率领的部队就进攻渡口并阻止西岸的苏军渡河。很明显日本人认识到任何一支部队在渡河时都是很脆弱了。日本人期待这样的进攻可以使苏联人放弃他们的桥头堡又或直接将朱可夫的部队击溃。






Quote:
Yasouka Detachment’s attack started on July 2nd around 10.00. However it was met with heavy fire from the Soviet artillery, which slowed the Japanese advance. On July 3rd the Japanese attempted several more attacks. Zhukov, seeing that the Japanese were attacking the bridgehead, decided to counterattack by flanking the enemy. The gathering of forces started during the night of July 3rd. The following forces were used in the counterattack: 11th Light Tank Brigade, 7th Mechanized Brigade as well as some detachments of Mongolian cavalry. It was Zhukov’s decision to counterattack that prevented the Soviet defeat. At 3:15 Kobayashi’s group started to cross the river near Bain-Tsagan Mount. After crossing the river the group was able to defeat detachment of Mongolian cavalry, defending the ferry there. With the help of air support the Japanese were also able to repel the Mongolian counterattack. By 6.00 two entire Japanese battalions managed to cross the river and then started moving south toward the ferries. However at about 7.00 the Japanese ran into the Soviet Mechanized brigade, which was moving into the designated position for counterattack. As a result of this the Soviet Command now knew exactly what the Japanese were up to.


安冈支队的进攻在7月2日10点左右开始了,但日本人的进攻遭遇了苏联人强大的火力的阻止,这延缓了日本人进攻的速度。在6月3号,日本人又进行了数次进攻。朱可夫在观察到日本人在进攻苏军的桥头堡后,决定對日军的侧翼发动反击。反击部队的集结在6月3日的夜间开始进行,下面列出的部队参加了反击作战:第11轻坦克旅,第7机械化旅和一些蒙古的骑兵部队。朱可夫的这个决定使得苏军免于失败。在3:15,小林的部队开始在巴英查岗山附近渡河,渡河后击败了蒙古骑兵部队并在渡口布置防御,在得到了空中支援的情况下,他们还击败了蒙古骑兵的反攻。到6:00时已有2只整编的日军大队过了河并开始向渡口南方运动。但在7:00的时候他们遭遇正在向反击位置移动的苏军机械化旅,这样就使苏军指挥官知道了日本人的打算。




Quote:
Zhukov’s reaction was instant. He decided to immediately counterattack the Japanese bridgehead, established during the night. This task fell to 11th Light Tank brigade, commanded by M. Yakovlev. Its original task was to cross the Khalkin-Gol River in the area of the ‛ruins“, in other words a little more to the north then where the Japanese managed to cross the river. However, now that the Soviets were aware of the enemy movement the brigade was redirected toward the newly established bridgehead. This resulted in an attack against the Japanese infantry, which was moving toward the ferries, from three different directions by all three tank battalions.

At 9:00 the leading company of the second battalion, consisting of 15 BT tanks and 9 armored fighting vehicles, engaged the enemy using a flanking maneuver. The engagement resulted in a complete routing of the south bound Japanese infantry battalion along with the towed artillery battery. After this engagement the second battalion was unable to gain any more ground due to the fact that the 71st Japanese infantry regiment, which crossed the river earlier, was able to entrench itself at the bottom of the Bain-Tsagan mountain.


朱可夫迅速做出了反应。他决定立刻對日军的桥头堡发动反击,时间确定在晚上,反击的任务交给了雅科夫列夫领导的第11轻坦克旅。它原先的任务是从“废墟”处渡过哈尔哈河,也就是在日本人渡河处以北的地方,现在苏联人知道了日本部队运动的方向,于是第11轻坦克旅
转而向日本人的桥头堡前进,并将它的全部3个坦克营从3个方向上對日本步兵发动了进攻。

在9:00时,第二坦克营的先头连,包括15辆BT坦克和9辆装甲车,从侧翼對日军发动了运动攻击,这次攻击击溃了南部的日军步兵部队和正在牵引行进中的炮兵部队。而在这次进攻之后,第二坦克营发现它已经无法再找到任何目标来发动任何地面运动攻击了,因为较早渡河的日军第71步兵联队,已经龟缩在巴英查岗山脚下进行顽强的防守。





Quote:
As soon as the main forces of the 11th Light Tank brigade assumed the position for attack, the Soviets engaged the enemy from three different directions. First battalion and detachments of Mongolian mechanized division were supposed to attack from the north. The Second battalion was supposed to attack from the south. Third battalion along with the 24thth mechanized regiment was unable to gather at the rally point in time due to unfamiliar terrain. Even in this situation Zhukov decided to carry out the attack using what he had at the moment, which was just tanks without the infantry support. The attack began at 10.45. mechanized regiment was supposed to engage the enemy from the west. The attack was to begin at 10.45, however the 24th mechanized regiment was unable to gather at the rally point in time due to unfamiliar terrain. Even in this situation Zhukov decided to carry out the attack using what he had at the moment, which was just tanks without the infantry support. The attack began at 10.45.


第11轻坦克旅在其主力部队抵达战斗位置后,即从3个方向對日军发动了进攻。第一营和蒙古机械化部队从北面进攻,第二营从南面进攻,第三营和第24机械化团由于对地形很陌生而没有准时到达集结点。此时朱可夫手头上只有坦克而没有步兵,尽管如此,朱可夫还是决定发动进攻。10:45苏军开始攻击,机械化团负责进攻日军的西面,但它由于地形原因没有准时到达进攻位置,尽管如此,朱可夫还是决定在没有步兵支援的情况下仅仅用坦克进攻。







Quote:
The firefight lasted about four hours. The second battalion, consisting of 53 BT-5 tanks, attacked the enemy from the south but was met by Japanese troops armed with Molotov cocktails and anti tank mines tied to long sticks. As a result the Soviets lost three tanks and 2 armored fighting vehicles. Both damaged armored vehicles as well as one of the three tanks were evacuated to safety.

In the morning of July 4th the Japanese attempted a counterattack. After softening the Soviet positions with a large group of bombers and a three-hour artillery barrage the Japanese infantry attempted to attack the Soviet lines. During that day the Japanese attempted five separate attacks, however all proved to be unsuccessful and resulted in heavy casualties.


战斗持续了大约4个小时,第二坦克营,包括53辆BT坦克,从南面进攻,但是他们遇到了日军的顽强抵抗,日军装备着莫洛.托夫鸡尾酒和绑着反坦克地雷的长杆,苏联人损失了3辆坦克和2辆装甲车,其中2辆装甲车和一辆坦克被转移到了后方。

7月4号早晨日军进行了一次反攻,在对苏军阵地投下了大量炸弹和3小时的炮击后,日军开始冲击苏军的阵线。整整一个白天中日本人发动了5次间断的进攻,但都没有成功,并给日本人自己造成了重大的损失。





Quote:
Finally at 19.00 Soviet and Mongol forces attempted an assault. The Japanese were unable to hold their line and were forced to retreat toward the ferry under the cover of the night. On the next day at dawn 1st and 2nd tank battalions of the 11th Light Tank Brigade broke through toward the Japanese ferry and engaged the enemy there. In order to avoid losing the ferry to the Soviets the Japanese command decided to blow it up. As a result of this the remaining Japanese forces which crossed the river earlier, were unable to come back over the river, which resulted in their complete routing. The Japanese forces scattered abandoning much of their weaponry. The Soviet forces, therefore, were able to capture it. The Japanese, however, were able to avoid complete routing due to rough terrain, which prevented Soviet tanks from engaging in a pursuit.

In the morning of July 5th the commander of the 11th Light Tank brigade Lieutenant A. F. Vasilyev led the attack of four BT tanks against eleven Japanese tanks. Using extensive maneuvering and constantly firing at the enemy the Soviets were able to knock out four Japanese machines without suffering any loses. As a result of this Lieutenant Vasilyev was awarded the Hero of Soviet Union Medal.


最终在19:00,最终在19:00时,苏联和蒙古联军决定进行一次突袭。日本军队在突袭下没法守住阵线,只好在夜色的掩护下撤向他们的渡口。第二天凌晨,第十一轻装甲旅下属的第一和第二坦克营突入了日本人防守的渡口并与日军开始作战。为了防止渡口落入苏联人手中,日本指挥官决定炸毁它。结果那些在更早的时候过河的日本军队就没法在回去了,这导致了这些日本部队的彻底崩溃。日本士兵在逃散的过程中抛弃了大部分的武器,所以苏联人缴获了大量的战利品。而日军没有全面崩溃的原因在于当地恶劣的地形条件使得苏军装甲部队没法很好的组织追击。

在7月5日上午,第11轻坦克旅的指挥官Lieutenant A. F. Vasilyev指挥着4辆BT坦克对抗11辆日本坦克,通过大量的机动和不断的射击,苏联人击毁了4辆日本坦克而自身没有遭到一点损失,由此Lieutenant Vasilyev被授予了苏联英雄勋章。





Quote:
Seventy seven out of one hundred and thirty three Soviet tanks, participating in the battle near Bain-Tsagan Mountain, were either knocked out or damaged. Fifty one of these tanks could not be repaired. The casualties among the personnel were moderate. Twelve men from the 2nd Battalion were killed and nine were wounded. Ten men from the 3rd Battalion were killed and twenty three were missing in action. The Soviets came out victorious and a large number of damaged tanks was repaired. By July 20th the 11th Light Tank Brigade had one hundred twenty five tanks in its disposal.

According to the summary documents completed after the battle the classification of the 1st Army’s armor loses is as follows:

«Anti-Tank fire – 75-80%
Molotov Cocktails – 5-10%
Field Artillery fire – 2-3%
Aviation attacks – 2-3%
Grenades/Mines – 2-3%

The majority of loses came from the anti-tank fire and from Molotov Cocktail-armed infantry – approximately 80-90%. As a result of a Molotov Cocktail hit armored vehicles catch on fire; anti-tank artillery hits also sets most of the armored vehicles on fire. In this case the vehicles cannot be repaired. They are completely useless; the fire starts very quickly, only 15–20 seconds after the hit. The clothing of the escaping crew catches on fire. Heavy black smoke comes out of the vehicle as a result of the fire. It can be seen from 5–6 km away. After about fifteen minutes the shells within the vehicle start to detonate. As a result of this the tank turns unto a pile of scrap metal. According to an observation by a Japanese officer, burial fires of Russian tanks resembled the smoke from steel mills of Osaka».


在参加巴英查岗山附近战斗的133辆苏联坦克中,有77辆被击毁或损坏,其中51辆再也无法修复,人员的伤亡情况相对要好一点,第二坦克营有12人战死9人受伤,第三营有10人战死23人在行动中失踪。苏联人在这次战斗中取得了胜利,受伤的坦克也迅速被修复。到了7月25日第11轻坦克营的编制里已有了125辆坦克。

根据战斗结束后的统计数据,第一军装甲单位损失的原因的分类如下:

因 反坦克火炮 —— 75-80%
因 莫洛.托夫鸡尾酒 —— 5-10%
因 野战火炮 —— 2-3%
因 空中打击 —— 2-3%
因 手榴弹/地雷 ——2-3%
主要的损失来自于反坦克火力和装备着莫洛.托夫鸡尾酒的日军步兵,这种损失的比例占到了损失总数的80-90%。莫洛.托夫鸡尾酒击中坦克会导致车体燃烧,而大部分击中坦克的反坦克火力也会导致车体燃烧。因燃烧而损坏的车体都是不能被修复的,他们彻底没用了。火起的很快,大约在坦克被命中15-20秒后就开始燃烧,逃出车体的车组成员的衣服上大多也着了火,坦克车体燃烧而发出了厚重的黑烟,在5-6公里外就能看得到,在15分钟后坦克车体内的彈藥开始殉爆,在殉爆中整个坦克化为一堆废铁。根据一个日本军官的观察记录,苏联坦克燃烧的黑烟就像大阪工厂一样。





Quote:
The Japanese encountered the same problem as the Soviets. The armor penetration capability of Soviet anti-tank weapons was superior to the armor of Japanese vehicles. For instance out of seventy three tanks, which participated in Yasouka Detachment’s July 3rd attack, forty one tanks were knocked out; eighteen of them could not be repaired. By July 5th they returned to their original location. Japanese tank regiments were pulled out of the battle because of losing combat effectiveness. On July 9th they returned to their original location.

The delay in liquidation of the Japanese bridgehead most definitely could have produced grave circumstances for the Soviets. The shortage of available forces would have led to inability to prevent Japanese infantry’s advance toward the ferries located in the rear of the Soviet positions. Untouched the Japanese could have effortlessly marched for fifteen kilometers, eventually reaching the ferries. Moreover, half of the distance to the ferries was already covered by the Japanese by the time they were located by detachments of Soviet 7th Mechanized Brigade. Waiting for the arrival of infantry from the mechanized regiment, which was lost in the unfamiliar terrain, would have been equal to suicide. Four months later other less decisive than Zhukov commanders will be getting encircled by the Fins in Karelia in far less dangerous situations because they will not use their forces to destroy the Fins able to break through toward the rear of the Soviet forces. Due to his decisiveness Zhukov managed to prevent the encirclement of the Soviet Armies. A couple of dozen burnt BT tanks was a justifiable price to pay.


日本人遇到与苏联人类似的问题。苏联反坦克武器的装甲穿透力要比日本坦克装甲的防护力更优越。在参加安冈支队7月3号进攻的73辆坦克中,41辆被击毁,其中18辆不能再被修复,在7月5号日本部队回到了他们的出发点,日本坦克联队从战斗中撤离,因为他们已经不能再战斗中发挥作用了,在7月9号它们回到了他们的出发点。

如果没有對日军的桥头堡及时处理的话,那肯定将是苏军的灾难,可用部队数量的不足将导致苏军无法阻止渡口的日军穿插至苏军的后方,日军可以轻松地不受影响的行军15公里到达苏军后方,在被苏联第7机械化旅阻挡之前,日军已从渡口出发走了一半的距离。此外,如果朱可夫如果继续等待迷途于复杂地形的第7机械化旅的话,那也将是自殺行为。四个月后,那些决断性不如朱可夫的指挥官们在更不危急的情况下在卡累利阿被芬兰人包围消灭,因为他们没有用他们的部队去击败那些包抄苏军后路的芬兰人。朱可夫靠着他的果断的决策使得诺门坎的苏军免于被包围,而一堆BT坦克的残骸则是为达到这个目的而付出的必须的代价。





Quote:
As a result of fighting for the bridgehead on the western bank of the Khalkin-Gol River, the Japanese, under constant bombardment from Soviet aviation and artillery and from being under attacks from 11th Light Tank Brigade, have suffered 800 dead or wounded out of the total of 8000, comprising Kobayashi’s force during the retreat, which lasted almost twenty four hours. The casualties of the 11th Light Tank Brigade during the decisive attack against the bridgehead were more than justified. Loses were noted and respective awards were issued. Thirty three tankers were awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union Medal as a result of the Khalkin-Gol Battle. Twenty seven of them were from the 11th Light Tank Brigade.

Yom Kippur War started on October 6th 1973. The Egyptian forces were able to establish a bridgehead on the eastern shore of the Suez Canal. On October 8th two Israel Armored divisions were supposed to attack the established bridgehead. 143rd Division, led by Ariel Sharon, never made it to the bridgehead in time for the attack; 162nd Division, commanded by Abraham Adan, encountered heavy use of brand new AT-3 Sagger anti-tank system by the enemy and sustained tremendous loses – about 60% of the vehicles was knocked out. The anti-tank missiles turned out to be just as effective against Israeli tanks as anti-tank weapons, used against Soviet BT tanks near Bain-Tsagan in 1939.


日本人在哈尔哈河西岸桥头阵地作战的部队,在遭受了苏联人飞机大炮和第11轻装甲旅的轮番攻击后,总数8000人的部队战死了800人,包括小林部队撤退的那24小时内的损失。第11轻装甲旅在进攻日军桥头堡的战斗中的损失时相当值得的,伤亡数字被记录下来,对有功人士的奖励也分别发放。33名参加了哈尔哈河战斗的坦克手获得了苏联英雄奖章,其中的27名来自于第11轻坦克旅。

1973年10月6日爆发了赎罪日战争。埃及人成功的在苏伊士运河东岸占据了一个桥头堡。在10月8日,2支以色列装甲部队被派往攻击这个桥头堡,其中沙龙率领的143装甲师,一直都没有及时赶上进攻。而由阿巴拉汉姆.亚丹率领的第162装甲师,遭到了由大量AT-3反坦克导弹装备起来的埃及步兵的打击,这个装甲师遭受了巨大的损失,它的60%的装甲车辆被击毁了。在这次战斗中,反坦克导弹对付以色列坦克就好像在巴英查岗山战斗中苏联坦克遭到的反坦克炮火一样。
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  • [顶端] 2010-10-28 00:13 | [楼 主]
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    苏联的坦克旅赢了而以色列的坦克旅输了
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      绝地反击!
     

     级别:贵族

     爵位:腓特烈□爵士

     军衔:突击前线海军上尉

     精华: 0 | 0 | 0

     发帖:1526

     威望:131

     金钱:1349 T

     出勤:119

     贡献:1

     功绩:766

     

    自己翻译????????
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 04:02 | 2 楼
     jumpking
      37403

      浮云党党委书记
     

     级别:贵族

     爵位:◇男爵

     军衔:美国海军初级少将

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     金钱:167789 T

     出勤:1000

     贡献:0

     功绩:2247

     

    猪突冲锋的第一次彻底失败
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 06:46 | 3 楼
     Das Reich
      437

     

     级别:钻石骑士

     军衔:德国海军少将

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     发帖:9963

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     金钱:13273 T

     出勤:1424

     贡献:0

     功绩:4839

     军团:ss帝国师

     军职:德意志团参谋

     

    当时日本的战力与苏联相差太大了。
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 11:35 | 4 楼
     〃水¨月
      55371
     

     级别:白银骑士

     军衔:德国海军准将

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     功绩:1736

     军职:舍尔上将号-舰长

     

    打的好。。。
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 13:15 | 5 楼
     at9000
      26990

      大明辽东都司都指挥使
     

     级别:贵族

     军衔:德国SS旅队长

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     军职:水面舰队-副指挥官

     

    莫洛.托夫鸡尾酒对使用汽油发动机的坦克威胁还是蛮大的。
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 14:39 | 6 楼
     原草
      78962
     

     级别:青铜骑士

     军衔:德国陆军少校

     精华: 0 | 0 | 0

     发帖:1118

     威望:56

     金钱:13497 T

     出勤:108

     贡献:0

     功绩:618

     军团:JG52战斗机联队

     军职:2中队第2编队8号僚机

     

    坦克必须在快速机动中才能更好发挥。
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 18:21 | 7 楼
     火柴盒子
      15786

     

     级别:囚犯

     爵位:座山雕□爵士

     军衔:美国空军准将

     荣誉:学术研究院执委

     精华: 10 | 3 | 0

     发帖:10667

     威望:0

     金钱:168 T

     出勤:840

     贡献:0

     功绩:6

     军团:大汉王朝

     

    用户被禁言,该主题自动屏蔽!
    [顶端] 2010-10-28 18:26 | 8 楼
     原草
      78962
     

     级别:青铜骑士

     军衔:德国陆军少校

     精华: 0 | 0 | 0

     发帖:1118

     威望:56

     金钱:13497 T

     出勤:108

     贡献:0

     功绩:618

     军团:JG52战斗机联队

     军职:2中队第2编队8号僚机

     

    朱可夫其人作战一个特点就是反应很快,能根据敌情快速调整。
    [顶端] 2010-10-29 18:50 | 9 楼
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